Native Americans were treated poorly by the English. Passaconaway and Nhnancomock consented to giving up their rights as independent nations shortly after King Phillips War. My father told me that more European and Native American men died, as a percentage of the whole, than in any war in American history including WWII and the Civil War. It was a close contest because roughly two percent of the nation’s young men died in the Civil War while over two percent of the colonists and Native Americans died in King Phillip’s War. It seems, if I am reading this document from the Massachusetts Archive correctly (Vol. 30, Pg. 3), that Passaconaway, who was a god to his followers, and Nhnancomock signed over their rights to be free and independent and instead sought the protection that Governor Winthrop and the English could provide.
Other nations were not so compliant. The Kancamangus would go to war over the restrictions in this document, but the English fought back with bacterial warfare. Pieces of cloth, coated with the smallpox bacteria, were shipped by ship to the recalcitrant Native Americans, who had no means of survival of this germ waarfare. The result was staggering. Nineteen out of every twenty Indians were killed by this tactic. Lowell Cemetery was a favorite Native American Burial Ground and between 1842 and 1862, hundreds of Native American bones were uncovered with artifacts that were buried with the dead. Apparently, there was little concern for the bones of these people either.The Penacook Confederacy and the Pawtucket tribes vanished. The English insistence on compliance or death had resulted in death. In the first year of village incorporation, 1826, the last Native American left Lowell for good. He was without family or friends, the last of his kind. Legend has it he headed north, but no one knows for certain.In past articles, I have listed these atrocities. We have Merrimack Street, a Native American name. We have virtually nothng of Native American interest beyond a few streets named for the Native American nations. It is time to rectify our mistakes by allowing the remaining Native American nations to tell their story in a museum dedicated to their culture. If anyone has any interest in this, then I guess you could like me on Facebook. And, list the reason why. I will get back to you.